Yungang Grottoes (雲岡石窟)

On the north cliff of Wuzhou Mountain of Datong is Yungang Grottoes.  For 1 kilometer along the mountain were 53 caves and about 51,000 sandstone statues.  The Grottoes were started around 450 AD during the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-354).  The sculptures were heavily influenced by the Indian Buddhist art incorporated with the Chinese culture and the social features of that time. Not all caves were open to the public.  While we were there, a number of caves were closed for restorations.

The entrance park designed in accordance to the artwork found on the cave walls of Yungang Grottoes.

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A typical architect of the Wei Dynasty

 

 

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Sandstone caves.  These are either windows or entrance way.  Many served as temples for cultivation.

This is cave #20.  Although this giant Sakyamuni Buddha is exposed outside for all to see, it was once inside a cave when it was first built like the other caves with windows and entrance way.   Due to the window opening damaged the structure’s support stone over the doorway, the front of the cave collapsed shortly after it was built.  But, there is always a silver lining to this calamity, this Giant White Buddha exposed became the main feature of Yungang Grottoes.

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The big Sakyamuni Buddha, a perfect person.  One can see the influence of Indian Buddhist art here. Notice the intricate carvings behind the Buddha.

Cave 1 and 2, which are dual caves in stupa form.  In the middle of the Cave #1 is the stupa like column of 5.75 meters in height.

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square stupa like a pillar of cave #1

 

Around the cave were more carvings depicting the Buddha stories and other Buddhas.

Interconnected cave #2 also has a square stupa like column support of approximately 6 meters high.

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square stupa like a pillar in cave #2

Surrounding it were also more Buddha stories and Buddha carvings.

One can see these art relics are heavily eroded by nature.  Yungang Grottoes are listed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001.

Cave #3 is the largest cave of Yungang Grottoes.  It is an unfinished cave which is lucky for us because it left indications of how they were made from the top first then continue down the cave.

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Main Buddha,  Amitabha Buddha

Cave #5  and #6  are another dual cave and are one of the richest.  The cave entrance is covered with eaves which made it look like a temple from the outside.  We were told that originally, every cave entrance has these eaves built extended from the cave.  This one was reconstructed during the Qing Dynasty.

 

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Temple-like eaves extended from the front of the Dual Cave #5 and #6

Inside the cave are covered with painted carvings.  In the center is a large column reaching 15 meters high into the ceiling.  Top of the caves were carvings of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and celestial beings.  On the column were carved with stories of the life of Buddha Sakyamuni.  Around the bottom portion of the wall were carved with stories from the scriptures.  The painting was done many times over by each Dynasty so it would be hard to identify the original color scheme.

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The upper level of the center column against the backdrop of the walls of carvings of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and celestial beings.

The lower level of the column depicting the life of Buddha Sakyamuni.

One needs to spend a lot more time to study these cave carvings.  These are only a minute few just to tickle your interest.

We can see from the outside through the window of Cave #18

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Outside of Cave #19

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You can see what a herculean effort would be required to maintain and restore these treasured relics.

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